What are the different styles of referencing with examples?



The way of perceiving and honouring someone else for their contribution, which you implemented in your study in order to improve your notion, is known as Referencing, also abbreviated as a Citation. Such knowledge and skills are centred on a wide awareness of the ethical and legal background of information, and they assist learners in coordinating their data and avoiding plagiarism.

  • APA STYLE OF REFERENCING: In the social and behavioural sciences, the APA citation format is most commonly employed (social work, psychology, anthropology, education, etc). Citation in APA is a variation of Harvard referencing. It's referred to as an "author-date" style. Only use the author's surname and the year of publication. Include the page, chapter, or section numbers if you're quoting or paraphrasing. When mentioning websites, leave out the date of access. Instead of a bibliography, this style demands a reference list.

Referencing a book: Austen, J. (2003). Pride and Prejudice (V. Jones, Ed.). Penguin Classics.
Referencing an image: van Gogh, V. (1889). The starry night [Painting]. Museum of Modern Art, New York City, NY, United States.

  • VANCOUVER REFERNCE STYLE: Vancouver referencing style assigns a number to each source that corresponds to the sequence in which it occurs in the text. The very same number is utilised if this source is mentioned once more in the main text. Vancouver style employs a reference list that consists of one list, numbered with complete information. You can also add a different bibliography, alphabetically arranged by author and identifies sources that you utilised in your assignment research but did not cite in the text. In accordance with the text, indicate references with a number(s) in square brackets. The names of the authors may be mentioned, but the citation number(s) should always be included.

Example: Davies B, Jameson P. Advanced economics. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2013.

  • HARVARD STYLE OF REFERNCING: The Harvard reference style is known for its "author-date" format. Only use the author's surname and the year of publication. Text citations appear in brackets or as footnotes in the main text. Page number should be included whenever you refer to a specific page. End-of-chapter citations are placed in the list of references or bibliography.

Referencing a book: AUSTEN, J. (1995). Pride and prejudice. New York, Modern Library. 

  • ASA STYLE OF REFERENCING: In the subject of sociology, the ASA referencing style is a widely accepted structure for producing university research papers. It defines how footnotes and bibliographies should be formatted and punctuated. The ASA citation format is similar in look and function to the APA or American Psychological Association style.

Example: Herrera-Sobek, Mari'a and Helena Mari'a Viramontes. 1995. Chicana (W)rites : On Word and Film. Berkeley, CA: Third Woman Press.

  • MLA STYLE OF REFERENCING: MLA refencing style uses the initial section of the Works Cited item for in-text citations, which is usually the author's surname and page number/s in parentheses. Instead of a bibliography, this style demands a "Works Cited" list.

Example:  Baron, Dennis. What’s Your Pronoun? Beyond He & She. Liveright, 2020

  • CHICAGO/ TURABIAN REFERENCING STYLE: The "author-date" referencing method is used in Chicago style of referencing. Only use the author's surname and the year of publication. Include the page, chapter, or section numbers if you're quoting or paraphrasing.

Example: Referencing a book: Austen, Jane. 1995. Pride and prejudice. New York: Modern Library.

  • OXFORD REFERENCING STYLE: In-text citations must be in footnotes according to Oxford referencing. For the initial mention of a text, full information should be supplied in the footnotes. Following that, a condensed version should be utilised.

In-text citation: C Neville, the complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism, 2nd edn, Open University Press, New York, 2010, p. 25.
Reference list: Neville, C, the complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism, 2nd edition, Open University Press, New York, 2010

  • CSE STYLE OF REFERENCING:   In the sciences, the CSE referencing style is widely employed.  Issued in 1960, The Council of Biology Editors was the first version of the style handbook. 

Example: McMillan VE. 2006. Writing Papers in the Biological Sciences. 4th edition, Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.

  • AMA STYLE OF REFERENCING: In the AMA referencing style the sequence that is followed by the text, indicate references with (consecutive) superscript Arabic numbers. Outside of periods and commas, and inside colons and semicolons, the numbers should be used.

Example: Brownson, RC. Evidence-based Public Health. 2nd edition, New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press; 2011.

  • IEEE REFERENCING STYLE: IEEE referencing format is a numbered reference style that employs citation numbers in square brackets in the body of the publication. At the conclusion of the work, next to the relevant citation number, a full related reference is listed. The IEEE Style is based on version 9 of the IEEE Editorial Style Manual, which was released in 2016.

Example: S. F. Reid, “The Importance of scientific method," Unpublished manuscript, BSC100: Building Blocks for Science Students, Murdoch Univ., Murdoch, WA, Australia, 2016.

  • NUMBERED SAUNDERS STYLE: In the text, in Numbered Saunders referencing style use superscript numerals to indicate references. The names of the writers may be mentioned, but the citation number or numbers must always be included.
  • INDIAN LAW INSTITUTE CITATION STYLE: To cite a paper published in a journal/periodical: Name of author of the article, title of the essay within inverted commas, volume number of journal Name of the journal page number (year).

Example: Upendra Baxi, “On how not to judge the judges: Notes towards evaluation of the Judicial Role” 25 Journal of Indian Law Institute 211 (1983).

It has different rules for different citation formats.

  • BLUEBOOK STYLE OF REFERENCING: The style handbook for quoting legal papers in the United States is the Uniform System of Citation. The 20th edition is the current one, is nearly an inch in thickness, containing more than 500 pages of legal citation instruction.

Example: Control of Air Pollution from New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines, 56 Fed. Reg. 9754 (proposed March 7, 1991) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 86).

  • THE CANADIAN GUIDE TO UNIFORM LEGAL CITATION:  The Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation, 9th edition. (Toronto: Carswell, 2018) is the source of the material in this handout. Because it is published by the editors of the McGill Law Journal, the Guide is sometimes known as the McGill Guide.

Example: Patrick Fitzgerald, Barry Wright & Vincent Kazmierski, Looking at Law: Canada's Legal System, 6th edition (Toronto: LexisNexis, 2010).

  • MHRA STYLE OF REFERENCING: The MHRA citation style is a set of referencing requirements that is often used in humanities disciplines.

Example: John Glasson, Riki Therivel and Andrew Chadwick, Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment, 4th edition (Abingdon: Routledge, 2012), pp. 83, 85-87.

  • ACS REFERENCING STYLE: The American Chemical Society created the ACS style, which is utilised in academic science writing. A reference does not get a new number if it is mentioned more than once. It comprises of reference numbers in ascending order, separated by commas, when mentioning more than one source at a time.

Example: Klinger, J. Influence of Pretreatment on Sodium Powder. Chem. Mater. 2005, 17, 2755-2768.

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